segunda-feira, 27 de abril de 2015
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies, including heart attack or near drowning, in which someone's breathing or heartbeat has stopped. The American Heart Association recommends that everyone — untrained bystanders and medical personnel alike — begin CPR with chest compressions.
It's far better to do something than to do nothing at all if you're fearful that your knowledge or abilities aren't 100 percent complete. Remember, the difference between your doing something and doing nothing could be someone's life.
Here's advice from the American Heart Association:
The above advice applies to adults, children and infants needing CPR, but not newborns.
CPR can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm.
When the heart stops, the lack of oxygenated blood can cause brain damage in only a few minutes. A person may die within eight to 10 minutes.
To learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an automated external defibrillator (AED). If you are untrained and have immediate access to a phone, call 911 before beginning CPR. The dispatcher can instruct you in the proper procedures until help arrives.
Before you begin
Before starting CPR, check:
Remember to spell C-A-B
The American Heart Association uses the acronym of CAB — compressions, airway, breathing — to help people remember the order to perform the steps of CPR.
Compressions: Restore blood circulation
Airway: Clear the airway
Breathing: Breathe for the person
Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured or can't be opened.
To perform CPR on a child
The procedure for giving CPR to a child age 1 through 8 is essentially the same as that for an adult. The differences are as follows:
Continue until the child moves or help arrives.
To perform CPR on a baby
Most cardiac arrests in babies occur from lack of oxygen, such as from drowning or choking. If you know the baby has an airway obstruction, perform first aid for choking. If you don't know why the baby isn't breathing, perform CPR.
To begin, examine the situation. Stroke the baby and watch for a response, such as movement, but don't shake the baby.
If there's no response, follow the CAB procedures below and time the call for help as follows:
Compressions: Restore blood circulation
Airway: Clear the airway
Breathing: Breathe for the baby
Given that both heads up displays for our cars and smart glasses are emerging (if still niche) product categories, it’s not surprising that a company would try to combine the two into a single product. Earlier this week we had the opportunity to try out Mini’s new Augmented Vision, a set of driving goggles that brings some of the features of your standard heads-up display to a set of glasses, making for an interesting look at the future of both connected eyewear and connected vehicles.
For now, Mini’s Augmented Vision googles are just a prototype, however the company plans to eventually bring something like what they’re showing off now to market. In their current form, the glasses are huge, and putting them on is a little more complicated than just putting them on your face. These specs actually have instructions:
Once you get them on, you have to go through a bit of a calibration process, matching the output on the display with your own vision. For the purposes of the demo, that calibration was done by closing one eye, and then the other and matching a box on the projected display with one that was on a poster hanging on the wall.
Setup took around three minutes, and afterwards all of the content from the glasses was displayed directly in front of me in my field of view. If you’ve tried out something like Google Glass before, then it’s a bit of a different experience. Content is physically in front of you comparable to a heads up display in your car, so you don’t have to change your focus in order to read what’s being projected (on Glass, the content hovers above and to the right of your field of vision).
Once I had the glasses on, the gentleman helping with the demo showed me several posters on the wall. While looking at them, information popped up on the display about the event and its location. By tapping on a button on the top of the glasses we were able to select a particular event from its poster and have directions beamed to the glasses on how to get there. Directions include not only turn-by-turn driving directions, but walking details as well.
Here's Mini's mockup of what that looks like:
Inside the car, I connected the glasses to the Mini and took off on my virtual journey (the car was stationary and the road was projected in front of me). As I drove, arrows were projected on the road telling me where to turn, and my speed along with the posted speed limit was constantly displayed at the bottom of my field of view. As I drove past individual sites, they were pointed out on the glasses, as was a parking space when I finally arrived at the destination. A text message came in from a friend and I was able to see that it arrived and have it read to me from the glasses.
For the most part, it was everything you might expect from your standard heads-up display, except on a set of glasses. The goggles take things a step further, though, with an X-ray view. Using cameras mounted on the outside of the vehicle, I was able to see a basketball dropped by a pedestrian through the passenger side door. It’s a pretty cool trick, but one that we think would definitely take some getting used to.
We did notice that the prototype ran pretty hot. After 15 minutes of use I was a bit concerned with how warm the model I was wearing had gotten. After a few hours in the car these could very well be unwearable.
For now, Mini’s googles are a bit more information than we would want in our field of view while driving. Sure, all that information is handy, but for us it was just a little too much. Yes, seeing through the passenger side door is cool, but while driving? It might be a little too much stimulation. We can see all the bells and whistles becoming more of a distraction than a safety feature.
That said, they’re an exciting glimpse of a potential future, and perhaps something we’d become accustomed to over time. Could connected glassware be the future of car tech? Maybe. If nothing else, Mini has a interesting idea in the works. Here's a video look at what the company expects the experience to ultimately be like.
Stanford's heat-recovery system, or SESI, will cut greenhouse gas emissions by 68 percent and fossil fuel use cut by 65 percent
Image Gallery (7 images)
At Stanford University in California, it’s normally the Nobel-winning researchers who make the news. But with the commissioning of a novel renewable energy system, the campus’s humble heating and cooling system has grabbed some headlines. Using a first-of-its-kind heat recovery system, and drawing a substantial percentage of its electricity from solar, the university is greening up its operations in a move that will see greenhouse gas emissions cut by 68 percent and fossil fuel use cut by 65 percent.
For a campus that’s more akin to a small city, comprising of 8,000 acres and over 1,000 buildings totaling more than 15 million square feet (1.39 million sq m), CO2 emissions can add up to a sizeable environmental impact of about 150,000 tons annually. The new system replaces what was once a state-of-the-art natural gas-powered cogeneration plant when it was commissioned in 1987, which heated buildings through a network of underground steam pipes, while cooling buildings with chilled water pipes. Buildings often require both heat and cooling simultaneously depending on the room temp needs (computer rooms and labs versus offices and classrooms).
“Basically if you think of air conditioning or cooling not as the delivery of cold, but rather as the collection of heat, things become more clear,” said Joe Stagner, executive director at Stanford’s Sustainability and Energy Management office.
After completing its route, the steam was then returned to the plant in the form of very hot water, known as condensate, along with chilled water which collected waste heat from the buildings. Once back at the plant, that excess heat was simply vented out into the atmosphere via evaporative cooling towers.
But campus growth had pushed the old system to its limits, and intermittent failures forced the university to buy relatively expensive energy from the grid. At the same time, plant engineers noticed that heat being collected from the campus by the chilled water loop overlapped with heat being delivered to the campus by the steam loop, which occurred about 75 percent of the time. With that, the idea for the heat recovery system was born.
As part of the new system, known as SESI (Stanford Energy Systems Innovations), heat that was previously discharged is now collected from the chilled water loop by a new heat recovery chiller that then moves it to a new hot water loop. The university replaced its steam pipes with 22 miles of hot water pipes, while retrofitting 155 buildings’ steam connections to hot water.
"What SESI does is use electrically powered heat pumps to take that waste heat from the cooling system to make hot water for campus heating instead of wasting it, thereby greatly increasing efficiency," says Stagner. "And by using electricity to power this system instead of natural gas, we can use renewable power and not burn gas and create air pollution."
Operated by patented software specifically designed for the system, SESI is claimed to be 70 percent more efficient than the previous cogeneration plant, while reducing heat loss that was an issue in the previous distribution system. It was also built with an additional 25 percent capacity, to cover the inevitable campus growth through 2050. And because steam will no longer be thrown away, the new system will save about 70 percent of the water used at the central plant, which translates into a 15-18 percent saving in the total amount of water used on campus.
Another major green aspect of SESI is a 68-megawatt peak solar farm being built on 300 acres (121 hectares) in California, along with 5 megawatts of rooftop solar panels to be installed on campus, all of which will provide about 53 percent of Stanford’s electricity. The rest will be bought from California’s energy grid, of which about 25 percent is from renewable sources (and growing), meaning at least 65 percent of the university’s power will be green.
"We know of no other system like this in the world, especially at this scale, with both hot and cold thermal energy storage, powered by clean electricity and run by newly invented 'model predictive control' software that continuously directs efficient system operations," says Stagner.
Source: Stanford University
Um estudo com 50 mil pessoas na Itália conclui que as redes sociais têm um impacto negativo significativo sobre o bem-estar individual.
As redes sociais on-line têm permeado nossas vidas, com consequências de longo alcance. Muitas pessoas a usam para estar próximo de amigos e familiares em partes distantes do mundo, para fazer conexões que levam suas carreiras para frente e para explorar e visualizar não só sua própria rede de amigos, mas nas redes de seus amigos, família e colegas.
Mas há cada vez mais evidências de que o impacto das redes sociais não é só bom, nem mesmo só benigno. Uma série de estudos já começou a encontrar evidências de que as redes sociais podem ter efeitos prejudiciais. Esta questão é muito debatida, muitas vezes com resultados conflitantes e, geralmente, utilizando grupos limitados de indivíduos, como estudantes de graduação.
Hoje, Fabio Sabatini na Universidade Sapienza de Roma, na Itália e Francesco Sarracino da STATEC de Luxemburgo tentaram isolar os fatores envolvidos nesta questão polêmica processando os dados obtidos através de uma pesquisa com cerca de 50.000 pessoas na Itália, feita ao longo de 2010 e 2014. A pesquisa mede especificamente o bem-estar subjetivo e também reúne informações detalhadas sobre a forma como cada pessoa usa a Internet.
A pergunta que Sabatini e Sarracino tentam responder é se o uso de redes sociais reduz o bem-estar subjetivo e se sim, como.
O banco de dados de Sabatini e Sarracino é chamado de "Estudo Genérico em Famílias", uma pesquisa feita em cerca de 24.000 famílias italianas, o que corresponde a 50.000 indivíduos, realizado pelo Instituto Nacional de Estatística italiano a cada ano. Eles usaram os dados coletados entre 2010 e 2014, o ponto mais importante sobre a pesquisa é a seu tamanho e representatividade a nível nacional (ao contrário de outros grupos limitados a alunos de graduação).
O estudo pergunta especificamente "Quão satisfeito você está com sua vida, no geral, hoje em dia?", exigindo uma resposta entre extremamente insatisfeito (0) e extremamente satisfeitos (10). Isto fornece uma boa medida do bem-estar subjetivo.
A pesquisa também faz outras perguntas detalhadas, como a forma como as pessoas se encontram com amigos e se eles acham que as pessoas são confiáveis. Também perguntou sobre o uso de redes sociais on-line como o Facebook e Twitter.
Isso permitiu que Sabatini e Sarracino estudassem a correlação entre o bem-estar subjetivo e outros fatores da vida, especialmente o uso de redes sociais. Como estatísticos, eles foram especialmente cuidadosos em excluir correlações falsas que pudessem ser explicadas por fatores como viés e endogeneidade, onde um parâmetro aparentemente independente está, na verdade, relacionado a um fator não observado desprezado como erro.
Eles descobriram, por exemplo, que as interações pessoais e a confiança que uma pessoa tem na outra estão fortemente correlacionadas com o bem-estar de uma forma positiva. Em outras palavras, se você tende a confiar mais nas pessoas e ter mais interações pessoais, você provavelmente dará uma nota melhor para o seu bem-estar.
Mas, é claro, as interações em redes sociais on-line não são feitas pessoalmente e isso pode afetar a confiança que você tem nas pessoas on-line. É essa perda de confiança que pode afetar o bem-estar subjetivo em vez da própria interação on-line.
Sabatini e Sarracino desafiam estatisticamente esse fato. "Nós encontramos que a rede social on-line desempenha um papel positivo no bem-estar subjetivo através do seu impacto sobre as interações físicas, ao passo que [o uso de] sites de redes sociais está associado a menor confiança social", dizem eles. "O efeito global da rede no bem-estar individual é significativamente negativo", concluem.
Este é um resultado importante, pois é a primeira vez que o papel das redes on-line foi abordado em uma amostra tão grande e representativa e a nível nacional.
Sabatini e Sarracino destacam especialmente o papel da discriminação e incitação ao ódio em mídias sociais que dizem ter um papel significativo na confiança e bem-estar. Melhor moderação poderia melhorar significativamente o bem-estar das pessoas que usam redes sociais, eles concluem.
arxiv.org/abs/1408.3550: Online Networks and Subjective Well-Being
Smartphones and tablets have become part of everyday life, but parents still worry that mobile devices may not be the best thing for their children, according to a study to be presented Sunday, April 26 at the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) annual meeting in San Diego.
The scientific literature has not kept pace with how technology is affecting family life. To help fill this gap, researchers conducted in-depth interviews with 35 parents/guardians to learn about their views regarding mobile device use by themselves and their children, including benefits, drawbacks and effects on family interactions.
Researchers interviewed caregivers of children younger than 9 years old individually or in groups of two to five. Participants included mothers (63 percent), fathers (26 percent) and grandmothers (11 percent) with a mean age of 38 years. One-third were single parents, 43 percent were nonwhite and 40 percent had a high school education or less.
Interviewers first asked standard questions about technology and parenting (e.g., what media-use rules parents had set, how mobile device use impacts child learning and behavior, and perceived risks and benefits). Follow-up questions further explored caregivers' statements, and discussion was encouraged among participants.
Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, and three researchers reviewed transcripts for major themes.
"One of the striking things about these interviews was that parents thanked us for letting them take part ... for letting them vent their strong feelings and uncertainties about parenting and technology, and for letting them speak with other parents who were going through similar experiences," said lead author Jenny Radesky, MD, FAAP, assistant professor of pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine, and developmental-behavioral pediatrician, Boston Medical Center.
Results showed that caregivers had a high degree of tension regarding technology. Many reported feeling that they needed to buy their children tablets to keep up with educational system and workforce demands.
Parents also worried about how strongly their children were drawn to mobile devices and gaming, with some saying their kids were "hooked" or "addicted." They also were concerned that time spent on screens would hurt their child's social skills. Other parents worried that reliance on technology would make their child less creative or less of an independent thinker.
Many lower-income caregivers said it was difficult to stay on top of what apps or social media their children were using, and they did not feel confident in their ability to set limits on mobile device use.
Parents did see some benefits of mobile media use, including the ability to teach things their child would not have tried in "real life" (e.g., putting together a puzzle). They also noted that apps are less expensive than toys, devices help keep children calm when parents are stressed, and video chat apps can be used to connect with distant family members.
"Tech for young children is evolving faster than scientific research can study its effects, and this study helps pediatric providers understand the experience and concerns of a diverse group of parents, so that we can give them the most relevant, and hopefully helpful, guidance possible," Dr. Radesky concluded.
Image of a 3-D camera (Camera brand not related to the story below)
When Microsoft released the Kinect for Xbox in November 2010, it transformed the video game industry. The most inexpensive 3-D camera to date, the Kinect bypassed the need for joysticks and controllers by sensing the user's gestures, leading to a feeling of total immersion into the game. Microsoft sold 8 million Kinect units within 60 days, making it the fastest-selling electronic device ever.
"But then something interesting happened," said Oliver Cossairt, assistant professor of electrical engineering and computer science at Northwestern University's McCormick School of Engineering. "Microsoft made the software available for the 3-D capture part of the device. People were able to integrate this inexpensive consumer device into a variety of platforms, including robotics and navigation."
But users quickly discovered the Kinect's limitations. It does not work outdoors, and it produces relatively low-quality images. Now, Cossairt's team has picked up where the Kinect left off and developed a 3-D capture camera that is inexpensive, produces high-quality images, and works in all environments -- including outdoors.
Supported by the Office of Naval Research and the US Department of Energy, the research is described in the paper "MC3D: Motion Contrast 3D Scanning," presented on April 24 at the IEEE International Conference on Computational Photography. Nathan Matsuda, a graduate student in Cossairt's lab, is first author, and Mohit Gupta from Columbia University is co-author and collaborator.
Both first and second generation Kinect devices work by projecting light patterns that are then sensed and processed to estimate scene depth at each pixel on the sensor. Although these techniques work quickly, they are less precise than expensive single-point scanners, which use a laser to scan points across an entire scene or object. Cossairt's camera uses single-point scanning in a different way. Modeled after the human eye, it only scans parts of the scenes that have changed, making it much faster and higher quality.
"If you send the same signal to your eye over and over, the neurons will actually stop firing," Cossairt said. "The neurons only fire if there is a change in your visual stimulus. We realized this principle could be really useful for a 3-D scanning system."
Another problem that plagues the Kinect: it does not work well outside because the sunlight overpowers its projected light patterns. The laser on Cossairt's camera, however, can be sensed in the presence of the sun because it is much brighter than ambient light.
"In order for a 3-D camera to be useful, it has to be something you can use in everyday, normal environments," Cossairt said. "Outdoors is a part of that, and that's something the Kinect cannot do, but our Motion Contrast 3-D scanner can."
Cossairt believes his camera has many applications for devices in science and industry that rely on capturing the 3-D shapes of scenes "in the wild," such as in robotics, bioinformatics, augmented reality, and manufacturing automation. It could potentially also be used for navigation purposes, install on anything from a car to a motorized wheelchair. Cossairt's group received a Google Faculty Research Award to integrate their 3-D scanning technology onto an autonomous vehicle platform. Their scanner will provide high-quality 3-D scans in real time without only a fraction of the power of competing technologies.
Most studies assessing the prevalence of alcohol abuse as a risk factor for alcoholic cirrhosis focus on total annual amount drunk per person. However, the researchers highlight that clinical studies suggest that it is a high daily consumption which is the strongest predictor of alcoholic cirrhosis. This new research concluded that heavy daily drinkers most significantly and independently influence a country's cirrhosis burden.
According to the World Health Organization's Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health, around 6% of global deaths are caused by drinking alcohol, the majority from alcoholic cirrhosis -- scarring of the liver as a result of continuous, long-term liver damage. Half of all cases of cirrhosis are caused by alcohol.
The researchers analysed the WHO's Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health, which included parameters of alcohol consumption and drinking patterns from 193 countries.
Reducing heavy drinking should therefore be considered as an important target for public health monitoring and policies.
domingo, 26 de abril de 2015
By Michael McCarthy | HSNewsBeat | Updated 11:15 AM, 04.16.2015
Posted in: Research
Distinct proteins in aggressive breast cancer subtypes point to targeted approach
An exhaustive analysis has been conducted of more than 12,000 distinct proteins present in an often aggressive and difficult to treat form of breast cancer, called triple-negative breast cancer.
The study was performed in collaboration with the labs of Su-In Lee, assistant professor of genome sciences and of computer science and engineering, and Anthony Blau, director of the UW’s Center for Cancer Innovation. Both co-authored the study.
About one in five breast cancers are triple-negative. They tend to be more aggressive and grow and spread more rapidly. They are also less likely to respond to many standard treatments. Triple-negative breast cancer occurs more often in women under age 40 and in African American women.
News media contact: Leila Gray, 206-685-0381, firstname.lastname@example.org
Fri, 04/24/2015 University of Akron
Macromolecular science will have to add a new giant molecule to its lexicon thanks to new and cutting-edge polymer research at The University of Akron. The research team led by Stephen Z.D. Cheng, professor at UA’s college of polymer science and polymer engineering, invented a new thinking pathway in the design and synthesis of macromolecules—the backbone of modern polymers—by creating an original class of giant tetrahedra.
Major technological advancement is largely driven by the discovery of new materials, and this work opens up an entirely new direction of research. The work has been done in collaboration with researchers at Peking University in China and The University of Tokyo in Japan. In creating a brand new field of study in macromolecular science, their findings are published in the April 24, 2015 issue of Science magazine.
The unique challenge of building macromolecules is to keep their material-specific properties. This requires the ability to create material designed and engineered at the nanometer scale for a specific task. Cheng and his team asked themselves, “What kind of structures do we need to transfer and amplify microscopic functionalities to macroscopic properties?”
Breaking new ground
Building on earlier work on giant surfactants, which the National Science Foundation began funding in 2009, Cheng and his team worked to development a new class of giant polyhedra. These precisely functionalized nanoparticles were achieved by extending the molecular geometry from traditional one-dimension categories of giant surfactants to three dimensions of tetrahedron shapes that are the simplest to use. “It had never been done before in soft matter, where it’s engineering could be particularly useful,” explains Cheng, “and it took 3 years to design and synthesize.”
Since these new giant molecules are precisely and manually controlled and designed, their discovery provides great opportunities to construct new building blocks with atomic precision. “Because of the ‘click’ synthesis, this system is highly tunable in terms of core structure, nanoparticle functionality, and feature sizes,” describes Cheng. The concepts and formation mechanisms of these supramolecular structures could be extended to other giant polyhedral molecules with different topologies and chemical compositions, giving scientists a new way to think about answering the question, “How can we organize molecules into ordered complex structures?”
Their research progression can be recapped in three basic phases. Using computational and data-driven approaches, Cheng and his team first designed and synthesized giant tetrahedra by introducing different functionality at the tetrahedral vertexes to generate precise positional interactions. Then they found a selective, multi-step assembly process of these giant tetrahedra resulting in highly ordered supramolecular lattices including a Frank-Kasper A15 phase at a nanometer scale. Finally, they observed the structure lattice in real space of the Frank-Kasper A15 phase under transmission electron microscopy, which in and of itself is a novel action.
This new class of hybrid materials covers the development of a diverse range of novel applications. Cheng’s team is working with professionals from a wide variety of fields, asking, “What problem requires solving? What do you need?” This process helps to ensure the material can be used to create commercially viable solutions.
Cheng foresees that this new giant molecule can deliver a previously unexplored examination into a new class of advanced functional materials with innovative electric, magnetic and optic functions. “For example,” says Cheng, “we are currently exploring the intriguing functional properties of light ceramic materials with soft-matter characteristics, often called ‘soft-ceramics.’ These structures exhibit certain mechanical elasticity as opposed to the brittleness of common ceramics.”
SOURCE: University of Akron
The AFRL confirmation paves the way for further development of the SABRE engine
Image Gallery (8 images)
Reaction Engines' Skylon reusable spaceplane project has been given a boost, with analysis by the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) confirming the feasibility of the SABRE engine cycle concept that lies at its heart.
The feasibility study conducted as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the AFRL’s Aerospace Systems Directorate (AFRL/RQ) looked at the thermodynamic cycle of the SABRE concept. That is, whether the engine is able to do what Reaction Engine claims it can do. According to AFRL, there's no theoretical problem with the concept if the engine is properly built and integrated.
The SABRE (Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine) is a scramjet. That is, it reduces the propellant load because it acts as a jet while in the atmosphere and a rocket in space, so it doesn't have to carry as much oxygen to burn the liquid hydrogen fuel. It does so at velocities above Mach 5 (4,500 mph, 7,200 km/h) before flying into space, when it switches to rocket mode to achieve the even faster speeds needed to reach orbit.
SABRE engine with the heat exchanger marked in blue
The limit of the engine is how hot it gets. Above a certain point, even the best metal alloys soften and melt. At hypersonic speeds, the air is coming into the engine at 25 times more force than that of a Category 5 hurricane and the heat is like something blasting out of a cutting torch.
Paradoxically, before it can be burned, the air needs to be cooled dramatically, so as it enters the SABRE it passes over a series of heat exchangers that use the cryogenic hydrogen fuel to cool it down from 1,000° C (1,832° F) to minus 150° C (minus 302° F) in 1/100th of a second. Previously, this sort of heat exchanger was the size of a factory, but the SABRE uses one that's small and light enough to be installed inside the scramjet.
Reaction Engines and AFRL are currently collaborating on vehicle concepts that can use the SABRE engine. These not only include space launch vehicles, but also hypersonic aircraft and military applications of the Reaction Engines heat exchanger technologies.
"The activities under the CRADA have allowed AFRL to understand the SABRE engine concept, its pre-cooler heat exchanger technology, and its cycle in more detail," says AFRL/RQ program manager Barry Hellman. "Our analysis has confirmed the feasibility and potential performance of the SABRE engine cycle. While development of the SABRE represents a substantial engineering challenge, the engine cycle is a very innovative approach and warrants further investigation. The question to answer next is what benefit the SABRE could bring to high speed aerospace vehicles compared to other propulsion systems. Although application of the SABRE for single stage to orbit space access remains technically very risky as a first application, the SABRE may provide some unique advantages in more manageable two stage to orbit configurations. Furthermore, the heat exchanger technology also warrants further investigation for applications across the aerospace domain."
Source: Reaction Engines
Social situations are among the most important in our lives. Yet, there is a huge chance that you are oblivious to the plethora of unwritten social rules that structure everybody’s behaviour. Failing to comply to these cultural imprints can cause irreversible damage. Just following them blindly will not get you ahead. Hacking them, however, will give you the best results possible. Therefore we bring to you these – 25 psychological life hacks that will help you gain the advantage in social situations
1) Assume comfort in any interaction.
Our brain is an incredibly complicated instrument. Our relationship with it, is a love-hate one. We think we have control over it but usually something unconscious dictates our actions.
In most of our social interactions, we find it difficult to feel comfortable among strangers because our brain tries to protect us from exposure.
This however isn’t helping us when trying to be social and meet new people, is it?
This is why assuming comfort is so powerful. Commanding your brain to feel that you already know the person you are about to meet puts you in a position of advantage. It increases the chances of people showing interest in you and consequently even liking you.
2) Pay attention to people’s feet when you are approaching them.
Interrupting people when they are in the middle of an important conversation is one of the most annoying things to do. It shows that you have zero knowledge of social dynamics which will lead to unpleasant social situations.
When you approach a group of people while in a conversation, pay attention to their bodies. If they turn only their torsos and not their feet, it means they are in the middle of an important conversation and they don’t want you to interrupt them.
If they turn both torso and feet, it means you are welcome. This is extremely important, because the right timing in such situations may put you in a position of advantage, especially if the conversation was boring for both sides.
3) Whenever you have an argument with someone, stand next to them and not in front of them.
We’ve all been in situations where out of nowhere the conversation started escalating.
Unless you love drama, I would suggest you to avoid these situations. You might have the best argument in the world, but usually people get irritated when they feel they are wrong.
So, whenever you feel that the argument you have with another person (especially friends – it’s not cool to fight with friends) creates tension, move next to them. You won’t appear much of a threat, and they will eventually calm down.
4) Whenever you need a favor, open with “I need your help.”
Admit it. We all love to get others to do stuff for us. Either because we are lazy, or because we really need some help to complete a task.
Social dynamics show that when it comes to platonic relationships, nobody really likes an asshole. So whenever you need a favor, start your sentence with “I need your help.”
In most cases, people will accept your request and help you out. This occurs because we don’t really like the guilt of not helping someone out and we do like to be the one who is capable of helping.
5) If you want people to feel good, give them validation. Rephrase what they just told you.
We love validation. Most of our actions are the outcome of our need for validation. So what is the best way to get people to like you? Give them what they need of course. A simple example, is when you are in a conversation with another person and he says something really important for him. After he finishes, rephrase what he just said in your own words. This will make him think that you are a good listener and that you are really interested in him. It makes him feel he is the center of attention. That’s validation right there.
6) If you want to get a positive response from someone, nod while you talk.
This one is extremely powerful and also a bit manipulative especially if the person is suggestive. So use it with your own responsibility and in an ethical way. Getting a positive response from someone is usually what we want. Whether it is making a sale, or promoting a viewpoint, we always want people to get on board. Nodding while you try to deliver your message is a powerful way to get the person to agree with you. People usually like mimicking, so they will most probably nod back while you talk. This will subsequently communicate to their brains that they have to agree with you.
7) Want to see if someone is paying attention to what you are saying? Fold your arms.
Usually when we are in the middle of a conversation and especially if we talk about something very important to us, we get lost in our talking and rarely pay attention to whether the other person is following or not. So instead of losing time talking to a person who is distracted and might not even be interested in what you are saying, do this. Fold your arms while talking and see if the other person follows your move. If the other person is observing you and pays attention, they will most likely mimic you.
8) Having trouble remembering names? Repeat the other person’s name during the conversation.
I suck at remembering names. I usually don’t even listen to the other person when he says his name the moment we get introduced to each other. So usually, I ask a friend to introduce himself to the person so I can listen to his name. But then I forget it again. Awkward. Remembering names is very important because we feel important when someone mentions us. So the moment you meet someone repeat his name. Example: “Hi my name is Alex” “Nice to meet you Alex. So, Alex how do you know John?” And continue to repeat his name throughout the conversation.
9) If you ask someone a question and they only partially answer, just wait. They will keep talking.
This is a very common situation when you don’t know the other person that well or your question wasn’t clear enough. If they finish the answer without providing a full answer, just wait. Stay silent and keep eye contact. If the tension becomes unbearable, raise your eyebrows. It puts a bit of pressure on them but it communicates that you show interest. It also sub-communicates that you are a person that usually gets what he wants.
10) People usually focus on the emotion and not on the subject.
This is very useful in public speaking but also in building rapport with an acquaintance. Whenever you introduce yourself to new people, most probably they have already heard what you are about to say. Well that’s not a problem. Even if you want to talk about the most boring topic in the world, make sure of one thing: Always try to evoke emotions. From my experience the 3 emotions that you want to evoke are: • Excitement • Laughter: Everyone likes to laugh • Intrigue: Leave a little mystery so the other person has to invest energy to hear more. Don’t be purposely distant, but avoid verbal diarrhea.
There are many techniques to turn a boring conversation into an exciting and intriguing one, but here are a couple of my favorites:
So if you want to be memorable, focus on the emotion behind the words. People may forget what you say, but they will never forget how you make them feel.
11) Confidence is more important than knowledge.
Two young candidates walked into the interview office to apply for the same job. The first one had a Phd, two Masters and a Bachelor’s degree. The second one had just a Bachelor. The first one was kind of shy, didn’t talk much, his body language was turned inward. The second one had an upright posture, was looking the interviewers directly in the eyes, showed a lot of interest in the job and his answers where emitting confidence. We don’t have to tell you who got the job.
12) Fake it until you make it.
No one became an expert on anything over night. However, the learning process in everything you do is accelerated by commanding your brain to think what you want it to think. In simple words. You are what you believe you are. • You are confident if you believe you are confident • You are attractive if you believe you are attractive • You are extrovert if you believe you are extrovert If you want to look deeper into this idea look up two words. Neuroplasticity and brain rewiring.
13) Pose in a Power Stance.
This is similar to the previous point, but more concrete than a mantra or belief. Go stand in the mirror, put your hands on your hips, thrust your pelvic forward, pull your shoulders up, back and down, open your chest, tilt your head up, and force the biggest smile you can possibly manage to fit across your face. Even if you consciously know you’re just faking it, your brain can’t tell the difference, and will release endorphins to match your body position. This can feel silly, but it really works.
14) If you want to be persuasive, try and reduce the use of the words “I think” and “I believe.”
I don’t really feel the need to elaborate on this one. Obviously these words do not evoke confidence and the other person will most probably not take you seriously. Change them to ‘I know’ and ‘I will’ instead.
15) A clean and organised environment affects your mood, productivity, and others perception of who you are.
How many times have you waken up without any motivation at all? How many times have you started working on something without being able to get focused and inspired? Next time this happens, take a look around you. Is your environment clean and well-organized? If not, take some minutes to clean it up and put everything into place. You will feel refreshed and reborn and productivity will spark immediately. But not only that, you will come across as caring and punctual, two highly esteemed traits. Why do think most of the big companies pay so much attention to creating the best working environment for their employees? They know what makes them happy and how it affects their productivity.
16) Want to find out which people are close to each other within a group and who is perceived as the leader?
Pay attention to who is looking at each other when everyone in the group laughs at a joke. People instinctively look at and agree with the person they feel closest to within the group.
17) Whenever you call a person you want to meet, show excitement!
Always have this in mind. Excitement is contagious. Why do you think the music video from Pharrell Williams – “Happy” got so many views and so many people were talking about it?
People love excitement! It is like an escape from their boring lives. Never forget that.
(You can mirror this and show disappointment if somebody let’s you down, making them painfully aware of their hurtful actions.)
18) Want to build rapport and gain respect? Match body language.
This is quite a common topic among body language experts and works well if you want to gain respect from a person that has high value.
You are in a social situation where a person has higher value among others within the group. He is the center of attention and he totally enjoys it. How do you match his value? By befriending him!
If you want his respect and attention the best thing to do when you approach him is to match his body language and speaking patterns. If he has open body language and he talks with excitement and joy, don’t go there with crossed arms and with an attitude of negating his words.
Approach him with the same amount of excitement and show openness and interest.
19) When someone insults you, either ignore him or mock him. Never lose temper. Always control the frame.
Haters are everywhere. The more you feed them with hate, the stronger they become. Never lose your temper. This is a great example of how to deal with a hater. Enjoy!
19a) Stand up straight, have warm hands and always keep eye contact.
• Keep a straight posture and walk like a born leader. This sub-communicates confidence and others will respect you automatically.
20) The Benjamin Franklin Effect.
The Ben Franklin effect is a psychological finding:
A person who has done someone a favor is more likely to do that person another favor than they would be if they had received a favor from that person. Similarly, one who harms another is more willing to harm them again than the victim is to retaliate.
This is an unbelievable finding. In social situations, you can hack this by making someone do something small for you, then asking for your true favor. It’s such a small favor that they will say yes, and due to cognitive dissonance their brain will rationalize that they must like you enough to do you a favor in the first place. This is also called the foot-in-the-door effect.
21) Don’t be afraid to touch another person.
Touching someone on the shoulder or their knees creates an emotional and physical bond. Especially during moments of joy, laughter and excitement touching positively reinforces these traits. If you’re uncomfortable with touching, remember 12, fake it until you make it.
22) Use the door-in-the-face hack.
The opposite of foot-in-the-door. Make an unreasonably large request that will most likely be turned down (but if it isn’t then that’s even better!), and follow up with your true intended, more reasonable request. The other person will be more likely to agree to the second request.
23) Always frame a request as a choice.
No one likes to feel pressured into doing something they don’t want to do. By subtlety rephrasing a request, you can make the person feel like they came to the decision on their own terms.
Homeless people who say things like, “it’s up to you if you want to donate or not” end up making more money than those who simply ask for money. The same is generally true for bands that offer “pay what you want” payment structures for their music. They know you can easily download their music for free off the internet, so they encourage you to pay what you feel is right.
A slightly more aggressive technique is the assumptive close:
This is a classic sales technique that can be used in any social situation. Instead of asking for permission, “do you want to donate/go on a date/get something to eat” assume that the person already does. Of course, you can’t just force someone to do something, but a leading question can nudge them in the right direction: “Would you like to donate 5 dollars or 10 dollars?”
Now instead of simply saying yes or no, they have to actively deny your request and feel like a naysayer.
24) If you work in a bar or in customer service of any kind…
Put a mirror behind you at the counter. When an angry customer approaches you, he will have to see himself in the mirror and will most probably calm down. Nobody likes ruining his image.
25) Chew gum if you are nervous.
Evolutionarily speaking, our brains assume that if we are eating then we aren’t in any immediate danger, so the fight or flight response is weakened.Daily Weekly
This article was originally published in The Quintessential Man, and edited for HighExistence.
Losing weight is much more difficult for some than it has to be. One of the main reasons that women have difficulties in shedding those pounds is because they simply do not keep their energy levels up. Raising your metabolism not only gives you enough energy to get through the day, it helps you to feel better and to naturally (and quickly) burn off fat. If you are looking for some great metabolism boosters, we have a list of recipes for you.
1. Ginger/Pineapple Smoothie
Fresh ginger gives this powerful smoothie great metabolic properties. You can substitute your favorite citrus if you are not partial to pineapple, but if you want your healthy drink to taste like a tropical piña colada, this is what you need:
• 1 medium banana
Simply blend all of these ingredients together and enjoy. Photo credit Abcoaster.
2. Peanut Butter Smoothie
Peanut butter is filled with protein so it gives you energy that lasts for hours each day. Drinking one of these tasty treats will give you enough energy to get through your workday and that rigid workout. You need:
• 1 large banana
Mix all of the ingredients together in a blender and enjoy. Photo credit threemanycooks.
3. Tropical Treat Smoothie
This one has so many yummy tropical fruits that you may just want to enjoy one every day. While it does help to boost your metabolism, it also has Vitamins A and C and zinc so it helps to boost your immune system as well. You need:
½ cup cantaloupe – cubed
Just blend all of the ingredients together and enjoy.Photo credit Pinterest.
4. Berry Smoothie
This delicious berry smoothie is rich in antioxidants and will help you to detox your liver and boost your metabolism. You need:
• 1/3 cup fresh raspberries
5. Green Tea
Green tea in general has wonderful metabolic powers. When you add certain other ingredients however, you get a drink that can really boost your energy. For this drink you will need:
• 8 ounces of hot water
Just brew the ingredients together for about 5 minutes and enjoy. Photo credit Pinterest.
6. Apple/Almond Smoothie
This one has enough protein and other vitamins that you can actually drink this instead of eating breakfast and still boost your metabolism and feel great all day. You will need:
• 5 almonds
Just put all of the ingredients into the blender and blend until you get it as thick or thin as you like. Photo credit tracieinman.
7. Date Smoothie
No, this is not the smoothie that you drink on dates. It has dates and bananas for a delicious taste and a great metabolism boost. You will need:
• 1 pitted date
Just blend the ingredients together and enjoy. Photo credit aidamollenkamp.
8. Coconut/Raspberry Smoothie
This coconut raspberry smoothie is great. It has cinnamon which is a natural appetite suppressant and is low in calories and fat. You will need:
• ¾ cup fresh raspberries – note that you can also use ½ cup frozen raspberries if you cannot find them fresh
Just place all of the ingredients into the blender and blend until you get the consistency that you want. Photo credit deliciouslyorganic.
9. Dr. Oz Green Tea
So, everyone is buzzing about this great green tea recipe that Dr. Oz has provided that is supposed to be completely natural, help boost your metabolism and help you to naturally lose weight. Naturally, we had to finish up our list with this one. You will need:
• 8 cups brewed green tea
Just mix the ingredients together and keep in the refrigerator until use. Photo credit Pinterest.
[adsensecenter] There you have it – 10 great drinks that are not only delicious but will help you to feel better, lose weight and have a higher metabolism.
Fri, 04/24/2015 - 10:05am
Laura Betz, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
James Webb Space Telescope's Pathfinder backplane test model is being prepared for its cryogenic test. Courtesy of NASA/Chris GunnInside NASA's giant thermal vacuum chamber, called Chamber A, at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, the James Webb Space Telescope's Pathfinder backplane test model is being prepared for its cryogenic test. Previously used for manned spaceflight missions, this historic chamber is now filled with engineers and technicians preparing for a crucial test.
Exelis developed and installed the optical test equipment in the chamber.
"The optical test equipment was developed and installed in the chamber by Exelis," said Thomas Scorse, Exelis JWST Program Manager. "The Pathfinder telescope gives us our first opportunity for an end-to-end checkout of our equipment."
"This will be the first time on the program that we will be aligning two primary mirror segments together," said Lee Feinberg, NASA Optical Telescope Element Manager. "In the past, we have always tested one mirror at a time but this time we will use a single test system and align both mirrors to it as though they are a single monolithic mirror."
The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It will be the most powerful space telescope ever built. Webb is an international project led by NASA with its partners, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.