Barra de vídeos

Loading...

quarta-feira, 1 de outubro de 2014

Medications are main culprit of allergic deaths in U.S., comprehensive study finds

 


Medications are the leading cause of allergy-related sudden deaths in the U.S., according to an analysis of death certificates from 1999 to 2010, conducted by researchers at Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. The study, published online today in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, also found that the risk of fatal drug-induced allergic reactions was particularly high among older people and African-Americans and that such deaths increased significantly in the U.S. in recent years.

Anaphylaxis is the term used for a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can occur within seconds or minutes following exposure to an allergen. Until now, data on trends in anaphylactic deaths -- or even the number of yearly deaths from anaphylactic shock -- has not been well-defined. One reason: unlike countries such as the UK, the U.S. doesn't maintain a national registry for anaphylaxis deaths.

"Anaphylaxis-related deaths in the U.S. have not been well understood in recent years," said Elina Jerschow, M.D., M.Sc. director, Drug Allergy Center, Allergy and Immunology Division of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, and assistant professor of medicine, Albert Einstein College, the lead author of the study. "We hope these findings will help in identifying specific risk factors and allow physicians to formulate preventative approaches."

Dr. Jerschow and colleagues analyzed death certificates from the U.S. National Mortality Database and found that medication-related anaphylaxis was the most common cause of death (58.8 percent). Additional causes identified included unspecified anaphylaxis (19.3 percent), venom (15.2 percent) and food (6.7 percent). Further analyses revealed fatal anaphylaxis due to medications, food and unspecified allergens was significantly associated with African American race and older age; and fatal anaphylaxis rates due to venom was more common in white, older men.

Of the 2,458 deaths identified between 1999-2010, culprit drugs were not specified in most of the cases (approximately 74 percent). However, among those with an identified culprit drug, nearly half were antibiotics, followed by radiocontrast agents used during diagnostic imaging procedures and chemotherapeutics that are used in treatment of cancer.

During the years studied, there was a significant increase in fatal drug anaphylaxis, from 0.27 per million in 1999-2001 to 0.51 per million in 2008-2010. The increase in medication-related anaphylaxis deaths likely relates to increased medication and radiocontrast use, enhanced diagnosis and coding changes.

"Anaphylaxis has been dubbed 'the latest allergy epidemic,'" said Dr. Jerschow. "The U.S. and Australia have some of the highest rates of severe anaphylaxis among developed countries. We hope these results bring increased awareness of the need for a better understanding of anaphylaxis deaths."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Montefiore Medical Center. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Elina Jerschow et al. Fatal anaphylaxis in the United States, 1999-2010: Temporal patterns and demographic associations. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, September 2014 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.08.018

 

High-speed drug screen developed

 


Mehmet Fatih Yanik.

MIT engineers have devised a way to rapidly test hundreds of different drug-delivery vehicles in living animals, making it easier to discover promising new ways to deliver a class of drugs called biologics, which includes antibodies, peptides, RNA, and DNA, to human patients.

In a study appearing in the journal Integrative Biology, the researchers used this technology to identify materials that can efficiently deliver RNA to zebrafish and also to rodents. This type of high-speed screen could help overcome one of the major bottlenecks in developing disease treatments based on biologics: It is challenging to find safe and effective ways to deliver them.

"Biologics is the fastest growing field in biotech, because it gives you the ability to do highly predictive designs with unique targeting capabilities," says senior author Mehmet Fatih Yanik, an associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science and biological engineering. "However, delivery of biologics to diseased tissues is challenging, because they are significantly larger and more complex than conventional drugs."

"By combining this work with our previously published high-throughput screening system, we are able to create a drug-discovery pipeline with efficiency we had never imagined before," adds Tsung-Yao Chang, a recent MIT PhD recipient and one of the paper's lead authors.

Peng Shi, a former MIT postdoc who is now an assistant professor at the University of Hong Kong, is the paper's other lead author.

Fish on the fly

Zebrafish are commonly used to model human diseases, in part because their larvae are transparent, making it easy to see the effects of genetic mutations or drugs.

In 2010, Yanik's team developed a technology for rapidly moving zebrafish larvae to an imaging platform, orienting them correctly, and imaging them. This kind of automated system makes it possible to do large-scale studies because analyzing each larva takes less than 20 seconds, compared with the several minutes it would take for a scientist to evaluate the larvae by hand.

For this study, Yanik's team developed a new technology to inject RNA carried by nanoparticles called lipidoids, previously designed by Daniel Anderson, an associate professor of chemical engineering, member of the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, and an author of the new paper. These fatty molecules have shown promise as delivery vehicles for RNA interference, a process that allows disease-causing genes to be turned off with small strands of RNA.

Yanik's group tested about 100 lipidoids that had not performed well in tests of RNA delivery in cells grown in a lab dish. They designed each lipidoid to carry RNA expressing a fluorescent protein, allowing them to easily track RNA delivery, and injected the lipidoids into the spinal fluid of the zebrafish.

To automate that process, the zebrafish were oriented either laterally or dorsally once they arrived on the viewing platform. Once the larvae were properly aligned, they were immobilized by a hydrogel. Then, the lipidoid-RNA complex was automatically injected, guided by a computer vision algorithm. The system can be adapted to target any organ, and the process takes about 14 seconds per fish.

A few hours after injection, the researchers imaged the zebrafish to see if they displayed any fluorescent protein in the brain, indicating whether the RNA successfully entered the brain tissue, was taken up by the cells, and expressed the desired protein.

The researchers found that several lipidoids that had not performed well in cultured cells did deliver RNA efficiently in the zebrafish model. They next tested six randomly selected best- and worst-performing lipidoids in rats and found that the correlation between performance in rats and in zebrafish was 97 percent, suggesting that zebrafish are a good model for predicting drug-delivery success in mammals.

"The ability to identify useful drug delivery nanoparticles using this miniaturized system holds great potential for accelerating our discovery process," Anderson says.

"The lipidoid material screen is just an example demonstrated in this article; a similar strategy can be readily extended to other libraries or other organ systems," Peng adds.

Jeff Karp, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School who was not part of the research team, says this work is "an excellent example of harnessing a multidisciplinary team to partner complementary technologies for the purpose of solving a unified problem. Yanik and colleagues, who have extensive expertise with high-throughput screening in zebrafish and other small animals, have teamed up with Anderson et al., who are leading experts in RNA delivery, to create a new platform for rapidly screening biologics and methods to deliver them. This approach should have utility across multiple disease areas."

New leads

The researchers are now using what they learned about the most successful lipidoids identified in this study to try to design even better possibilities. "If we can pick up certain design features from the screens, it can guide us to design larger combinatorial libraries based on these leads," Yanik says.

Yanik's lab is currently using this technology to find delivery vehicles that can carry biologics across the blood-brain barrier -- a very selective barrier that makes it difficult for drugs or other large molecules to enter the brain through the bloodstream.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Packard Award in Science and Engineering, Sanofi Pharmaceuticals, Foxconn Technology Group, and the Hertz Foundation.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The original article was written by Anne Trafton. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Tsung-Yao Chang, Peng Shi, Joseph D. Steinmeyer, Itthi Chatnuntawech, Paul Tillberg, Kevin T. Love, Peter M. Eimon, Daniel G. Anderson, Mehmet Fatih Yanik. Organ-targeted high-throughput in vivo biologics screen identifies materials for RNA delivery. Integr. Biol., 2014; 6 (10): 926 DOI: 10.1039/C4IB00150H

Depression increasing in many countries including in the USA.

 


Analyzing data from 6.9 million adolescents and adults from all over the country, Twenge found that the US people now report more psychosomatic symptoms of depression, such as trouble sleeping and trouble concentrating, than their counterparts in the 1980s.

"Previous studies found that more people have been treated for depression in recent years, but that could be due to more awareness and less stigma," said Twenge, the author of "Generation Me: Why Today's Young people from the USA are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled -- and More Miserable than Ever Before." "This study shows an increase in symptoms most people don't even know are connected to depression, which suggests adolescents and adults really are suffering more."

Compared to their 1980s counterparts, teens in the 2010s are 38 percent more likely to have trouble remembering, 74 percent more likely to have trouble sleeping and twice as likely to have seen a professional for mental health issues. College students surveyed were 50 percent more likely to say they feel overwhelmed, and adults were more likely to say their sleep was restless, they had poor appetite and everything was an effort -- all classic psychosomatic symptoms of depression.

"Despite all of these symptoms, people are not any more likely to say they are depressed when asked directly, again suggesting that the rise is not based on people being more willing to admit depression," said Twenge.

The study also found that the suicide rate for teens decreased, though the decline was small compared to the increase in symptoms of depression. With the use of anti-depressant medications doubling over this time period, Twenge speculates that medication may have helped those with the most severe problems but has not reduced increases in other symptoms that, she says, can still cause significant issues.

Twenge's findings were published in the journal Social Indicators Research, and an updated and revised edition of "Generation Me" is being released today.

 

Nota do blog – Depressão e outras doenças relacionadas são observadas em quase todos os paises, emergentes e desenvolvidos, e podem estar ligadas à fatores climáticos, econômicos, sociais, comportamentais, e outros. Nos Estados Unidos que o país-alvo do artigo acima, hábitos prejudiciais, como privação de sono, uso de estimulantes ou medicamentos controlados, excesso ou falta de alguns tipos de alimentos, como por exemplo, excesso de açúcares e falta de verduras de folhas verde-escuras, podem estar contribuindo para essa onda de estados depressivos, e tantos outros fatores mais. Os adolescentes e os adultos jovens, na maior parte, ficam muito tempo ligados em jogos, celulares, computadores, televisão, e esquecem-se dos exercícios, e não se preocupam em obterem informações ligadas à um estilo de vida saudável. O resultado será então um progressivo cansaço físico e mental, que será traduzido por um estado depressivo.

Mas vários outros paises desenvolvidos também sofrem com esses mesmos problemas, não sendo portanto uma “epidemia de depressão” somente dos Estadunidenses. Mas um país tão importante para o mundo em geral deve incrementar seus esforços no sentido de determinar as causas desse aumento nas condições depressivas.

Quando os Estados Unidos esfria, o resto da humanidade bate os dentes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4 Natural Ways to Lose Water Weight Safely

 

Use these natural methods to lose water weight safely and effectively…

There’s the right way and the wrong way to lose water weight, and here we’ll be focusing on how to do it safely. The key is identifying why you’re storing excess water, and then taking steps to fix the underlying problem, rather than simply focusing on the symptoms.

reduce salt intake

1. Cut Out Sodium

If you’re carrying around excess water there’s a high likelihood that you have too much sodium in your diet. Processed food such as the kind you find in bags and boxes in stores, as well as fast food, often comes with a high sodium content. Sprinkling table salt onto your meals can also be a contributing factor.

You should make the distinction between sodium and natural salt sources like sea salt and Himalayan pink salt. These natural salts are not the same as the table salt you find everywhere, or the salt used in processed foods and cold cuts.

Why It Works: Less sodium in means less sodium you have to get out through sweating and proper hydration. Start at the source of the problem and you’ll be able to avoid many of the negative effects of storing too much water.

2. Increase Water Intake

 drink more water

It may sound counterintuitive but staying hydrated is key to losing excess water weight. Dehydration is actually a cause of storing water weight, not a way to get rid of it. If you’ve been going through an extended period of dehydration from not getting enough water, make sure to take things slowly. Don’t go from little water to a lot of water in just one day.

Instead of following the one-size-fits-all mantra of 8-10 glasses of water a day, take your body weight and drink half of that number in ounces of water each day. If you weigh 150 pounds you need 75 ounces of water. If you weigh 200 pounds you need 100 ounces, and so on.

Why It Works: Staying properly hydrated reduces the chance of storing too much water in the first place. When you combine the right amount of water with less sodium intake and working up a daily sweat, excess water weight will no longer be a concern for you.

3. Consume Natural Diuretics

diuretic

There are foods and drinks that will naturally induce more urination from you, which will help purge your system of excess water weight. These are highly preferable over drugs that have the same effect.

Note: The three methods above, sweating more, eating less sodium, and drinking enough water, should be enough to normalize your water weight. Diuretics may be used in an effort to speed things up, or help in severe situations, but in most cases will not be necessary. Also, eating enough fresh fruits and vegetables in a balanced diet will give you enough diuretic effect to regulate your water weight without direct effort on your part.

Why It Works: Diuretics get you to go to the bathroom more frequently and will speed the process along. Just be sure that you’re also drinking enough water as described above, or you can speed along the dehydration process as well, only exacerbating your water weight problem.

sweat out your water weight

4. Sweat It Off

Seating is one major helpful thing you can do to help shed any water weight that doesn’t belong. The key is not to try to sweat it out all at once, but to use the power of accumulated days to do the trick. Make it your priority to build up a sweat daily. You’ll be amazed at the additional health benefits you receive on top of losing excessive water weight.

Surely you’ve tasted some of your own sweat before, and you’re familiar with its salty nature. This is excess sodium that is no longer in your body and will help with the total water weight you’re carrying.

Why It Works: Sweat not only helps you get rid of any extra sodium you may be carrying in the body, it releases toxins as well.

Snap 2014-09-23 at 11.00.16

A New Idea for Treating Alzheimer’s

 

By Gary Stix | September 28, 2014

The views expressed are those of the author and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

 


If it’s good for the heart, it could also be good for the neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, cells that make up the main items on the brain’s parts list.

The heart-brain adage comes from epidemiological studies that show that people with cardiovascular risk factors such as high-blood pressure and elevated cholesterol levels, may be more at risk for Alzheimer’s and other dementias.

This connection between heart and brain has also led to some disappointments: clinical trials of lipid-lowering statins have not helped patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s, although epidemiological studies suggest that long-term use of the drugs may help prevent Alzheimer’s and other dementias.

The link between head and heart is still being pursued because new Alzheimer’s drugs have failed time and again. One  approach that is now drawing some interest looks at the set of proteins that carry around fats in the brain. These lipoproteins could potentially act as molecular sponges that mop up the amyloid-beta peptide that clogs up connections among brain cells in Alzheimer’s.

One of these proteins—Apolipoprotein J, also known as clusterin—intrigues researchers because of the way it interacts with amyloid-beta and the status of its gene as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s.

A researcher from the University of Minnesota, Ling Li, recently presented preliminary work at the Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation annual meeting that showed that, at least in a lab dish, a molecule made up of a group of amino acids from APOJ is capable of protecting against the toxicity of the amyloid-beta peptide. It also quelled inflammation and promoted the health of synapses—the junctions where one brain cell encounters another. Earlier work by another group showed that the  peptide prevented the development of  lesions in the blood vessels of animals.

Li’s research will still require crossing a number of conceptual barriers to prove that an APOJ-derived drug can actually work in humans.  APOJ plays different roles in Alzheimer’s. In the healthy brain, it may help preserve the normal workings of brain cells, but it may also promote the Alzheimer’s disease process under other conditions.

From the preliminary results, Li hopes that the APOJ-derived peptide will  harness the beneficial effects of the protein. The work is still in early stages and Li and her team now plan to go on to test the peptide in mice. “The long term goal would be to find something that prevents or treats Alzheimer’s,” she says. An APOJ protein fragment—or a variety of other new ideas for drug candidates—are badly needed for a disease that affects tens of millions of people worldwide yet lacks any good treatment.

Image Source: Eliza Fitzhugh/Flickr-Creative Commons

Snap 2014-09-13 at 12.29.02

Disease decoded: Gene mutation may lead to development of new cancer drugs

 


The discovery of a gene mutation that causes a rare premature aging disease could lead to the development of drugs that block the rapid, unstoppable cell division that makes cancer so deadly.

Scientists at the University of Michigan and the U-M Health System recently discovered a protein mutation that causes the devastating disease dyskeratosis congenita, in which precious hematopoietic stem cells can't regenerate and make new blood. People with DC age prematurely and are prone to cancer and bone marrow failure.

But the study findings reach far beyond the roughly one in 1 million known DC patients, and could ultimately lead to developing new drugs that prevent cancer from spreading, said Jayakrishnan Nandakumar, assistant professor in the U-M Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology.

The DC-causing mutation occurs in a protein called TPP1. The mutation inhibits TPP1's ability to bind the enzyme telomerase to the ends of chromosomes, which ultimately results in reduced hematopoietic stem cell division. While telomerase is underproduced in DC patients, the opposite is true for cells in cancer patients.

"Telomerase overproduction in cancer cells helps them divide uncontrollably, which is a hallmark of all cancers," Nandakumar said. "Inhibiting telomerase will be an effective way to kill cancer cells."

The findings could lead to the development of gene therapies to repair the mutation and start cell division in DC patients, or drugs to inhibit telomerase and cell division in cancer patients. Both would amount to huge treatment breakthroughs for DC and cancer patients, Nandakumar said.

Nandakumar said that a major step moving forward is to culture DC patient-derived cells and try to repair the TPP1 mutation to see if telomerase function can be restored. Ultimately, the U-M scientist hopes that fixing the TPP1 mutation repairs telomerase function and fuels cell division in the stem cells of DC patients.

"It's conceivable that with the recent advancement in human genome-editing technology, we could, in the not-so-distant future, repair the mutation in hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow of DC patients," Nandakumar said.

The findings also reinforce how one tiny change in an amino acid chain can cause devastating health consequences.

"It was surprising to us that just deleting one single amino acid in a protein chain that is 544 amino acids long can result in such a severe disease," Nandakumar said.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Michigan. The original article was written by Laura Bailey. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. H. Kocak, B. J. Ballew, K. Bisht, R. Eggebeen, B. D. Hicks, S. Suman, A. O'Neil, N. Giri, I. Maillard, B. P. Alter, C. E. Keegan, J. Nandakumar, S. A. Savage. Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome caused by a germline mutation in the TEL patch of the telomere protein TPP1. Genes & Development, 2014; DOI: 10.1101/gad.248567.114

 

Boeing Transfers and Lays-Off 2,000 Workers in Kent and Seattle

 

Sep 30, 2014 04:41 AM EDT | By Eunice Tagalog

Boeing F-22 Raptor Jet

(Photo : Wikimedia Commons)

Aircraft manufacturer Boeing is leaving its defense division in Seattle and moving to Oklahoma and Missouri and is reportedly laying-off 2,000 of its workers.

Aircraft manufacturer giant's defense division in Seattle which makes  airframes of their commercial Boeing 767  Air Force Tanker and P 8 anti-submarine jet announced on Mon. it plans to move 2,000 jobs out of Seattle three years from now in 2017.

Some workers with valuable skills will be relocated to Oklahoma City, Okla. And St, Louis, Mo while others can still work at Seattle's commercial jet unit.

The total number of people who will lose their job, on the other hand, remains undisclosed.

Boeing currently has 5,200 people working in their defense division in Seattle. And they plan to move almost half of them in Oklahoma and St. Louis in an overall project codenamed "Neptune."

Approximately 900 jobs will reportedly move to Oklahoma while St. Louis will receive 500 jobs.

The Oklahoma division primarily focuses on engineering work for larger military airplanes while St. Louis, the headquarters of Boeing's defense unit for the F-22.

In a statement released by Boeing executives, they said that the decision "was difficult because it affects our employees, their families and their communities. But this is necessary if we are going to stay ahead of a rapidly changing global defense environment," Chris Chadwick, Chief Executive Officer of Boeing's defense unit.

Transferring the jobs to Okla. and Mo. "will allow the business to more efficiently use the resources and capabilities across the company," according to Jim O'Neill, President of Global Services and Support Unit in the defense division.

Most of the jobs that will be moved are engineering work for some of Boeing's commercial and defense aircrafts like the Boeing 707, B-2 Stealth Bomber, Air Launched Cruise Missile, anti-submarine P-8 and F-22 Raptor Jet Figther. 

Boeing is one of the world's largest aircraft manufacturers and the second largest aerospace and defense contractor.

Snap 2014-10-01 at 13.03.19

Three Simple Solutions To Shedding Pounds

 

Fitness dance

There are few secrets when it comes to the basics of how to lose weight.

But, for a task whose fundamentals are so basic and so universally recognized,slimming down is a goal that eludes a great many adults.  What are the surest ways to shed pounds?

The big two are known across the globe: Diet and exercise. The third key, though, is one that everyone will need in order to accomplish their mission of sticking to the first two—discipline.

Stay hydrated by drinking lots of water. It’s good for you, and it has neither a calorie nor a gram of sugar or fat. If you drink milk, drop down a notch from what you’re used to drinking: If you drink whole milk, reduce that to 2 percent milk, if you like 2 percent, drink 1 percent instead.

As far as diet is concerned, reducing the amount of sugar, fat and sodium in your diet will go a long way toward reducing your weight. You might be eating less fat and less sodium and still have trouble losing weight. In that event, pay special attention not only to what you eat, but to what you drink. Sugar and/or corn syrup is such a prevalent ingredient in so many of our beverages that even if we’re minding our diets by cutting down on the burgers, fries, salty chips and sweet desserts, we might still be failing at fat-loss by continuing to drink sugary sodas and fruit drinks.

In terms of exercise, aerobic activity like swimming, walking, jogging or bicycling is great for cutting calories, and it’s beneficial to your cardiovascular system, too. If you really don’t like to sweat, go for a walk. If you live close to a downtown area, walk to town instead of driving. Dedicate yourself to at least a half-hour of exercise a day. And if you’re stuck behind a desk in an office five days a week, make sure you frequently get up, stretch your legs, walk around and get your blood circulating.

Whatever steps you take in terms of either diet or exercise to embark on a weight-loss program, you’re going to need something else: Commitment. It takes a world of self-discipline to push yourself to exercise every day, or to push away that second piece of pie for dessert, or that salty bag of potato chips to accompany your noontime sandwich.

Remind yourself that achieving goals takes discipline. Shedding pounds is as much about having the right attitude as it is about eating the right food or partaking in the right amount of physical activity.

Snap 2014-10-01 at 09.37.09

U.S. To Launch New Generation Submarines To Counter Threats From The Bulging Fleet of Russia and China

 

  •  

By Kalyan Kumar | September 27, 2014 11:19 AM EST

A submarine race is in the making. The U.S. has announced its new generation Ohio class submarines to address new threats from Russia and China. In an insightful assessment, the U.S. Navy expresses its concerns about the rapidly expanding submarine fleet of Russia and China while defending the new submarine push of U.S.A.

Vice Adm. Michael Connor, the U.S. Navy's Atlantic Submarine Force commander, notes that the fast-paced development of ballistic missile submarine by Russia and China's will require a matching deployment of U.S. submarine fleet, reported Fox News

What is worrying the U.S. is Russia's significant nuclear arsenal that it bequeathed from the Soviet days. Thus Russia retains all the nuclear capabilities. They are regrowing those capabilities, and Russia showing aspirations for more territory and influence, reminiscent of the erstwhile Soviet Union.

Russian Upgrade

Last week, Russia announced its decision to upgrade its submarine fleet and released photos of the Akula II-class nuclear submarines getting ready for upgrades. Alongside Russia, the U.S. Navy also looks at China's expanding submarine fleet with concern and its advancement towards global strike capabilities.

China has many ballistic missile submarines, but Connor observed that China is showing a penchant for adding more nuclear ballistic missile submarines. The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) in its assessment noted that China's navy has evolved from a littoral force to capable force for a wide range of missions with the capability to strike targets hundreds of miles from the Chinese mainland.

ONI noted that China's plan to include the Jin-class ballistic nuclear submarines was a force multiplier, and the deterrent patrols will start soon. The operational deployment of the Jin SSBN would enhance China's at-sea-second-strike nuclear capability, said the report. According to the report China now possesses 5 Nuclear attack submarines; 4 Nuclear ballistic missile submarines and 53 Diesel attack submarines.

China's Decade

The ONI report noted the rapid expansion of Chinese submarines of offensive weapons technology in the past decade. Before that, China had only a few submarines with the capability to fire modern anti-ship cruise missiles. Now, half of China's conventional attack submarines of China are configured with fire anti-ship cruise missiles.

When the undersea nuclear deterrence started in the 1960s, U.S. was the leader with 41 submarines. Now the U.S. Navy's fleet shrunk to 14 nuclear armed submarines. Conor added that the new scenario will be strategically addressed when the U.S. Navy releases the new-generation Ohio-class, nuclear-armed ballistic missile submarines by 2021. It is also known as the Ohio Replacement programme. In a report, the Market Watch carried the news that the U.S. Navy awarded a million contract to General Dynamics Electric Boat, towards planning the yard work and engineering of its new nuclear submarines.

Snap 2014-10-01 at 09.10.47

 

Microsoft "pula" Windows 9 e apresenta novo sistema operacional: o Windows 10

 

"O Windows 10 será nossa melhor plataforma empresarial de todos os tempos", disse o vice-presidente executivo do grupo de sistemas operacionais da Microsoft, Terry Myerson

Terry Myerson, vice-presidente executivo do grupo de sistemas operacionais da Microsoft (Foto: Agência EFE)

Terry Myerson, vice-presidente executivo do grupo de sistemas operacionais da Microsoft (Foto: Agência EFE)

A Microsoft apresentou nesta terça-feira em São Francisco (EUA) os detalhes da próxima grande atualização de seu sistema operacional, que deve iniciar as vendas em 2015, com o nome de Windows 10, e não Windows 9, como seria natural de acordo com a sequência de lançamentos.

A próxima versão do Windows, peça-chave do império de software da Microsoft, com cerca de 1.500 milhões de usuários no mundo todo, representa "o primeiro passo na criação de toda uma nova geração do Windows", disse em entrevista coletiva o vice-presidente executivo do grupo de sistemas operacionais da Microsoft, Terry Myerson.

O diretor afirmou que os usuários corporativos poderão comprovar que o Windows 10 é "familiar, compatível e produtivo". "O Windows 10 será nossa melhor plataforma empresarial de todos os tempos", disse Myerson.

O novo sistema operacional será uma plataforma unificada em todos os dispositivos, desde computadores até telefones e tablets e estará disponível em telas de 4 a 80 polegadas.

Com interface mais tradicional, mas visualmente ainda semelhante às antigas versões, o sistema mantém muitas funções presentes no Windows 8

O comportamento do sistema operacional se adaptará a forma como o aparelho estiver sendo utilizado, por exemplo, com ou sem teclado.

Durante entrevista coletiva o também vice-presidente da divisão de sistemas operacionais da Microsoft, Joe Belfiore, ofereceu uma demonstração da evolução do Windows.

Belfiore destacou que a empresa quer se concentrar na personalização e assegurar que o programa responda às necessidades de usuários com preferências e gostos alternativos.

"Estamos tentando alcançar o equilíbrio", afirmou o executivo.

A Microsoft disponibilizará para um grupo limitado de usuários da comunidade tecnológica a partir desta quarta-feira o programa Windows Insider, com uma prévia das especificações técnicas para laptops e desktops.

Myerson enfatizou que o programa para "desenvolvedores" é destinado àqueles que se sentem confortáveis em experimentar um programa de software prévio ao lançamento, cuja qualidade irá variar e pode não ser sempre a ideal.

"Queremos que as expectativas sejam as corretas", disse o diretor.

Ao contrário do que era esperado, a Microsoft decidiu ignorar o nome Windows 9, que teria correspondido ao próximo lançamento de acordo com a ordem das últimas versões.

"Quando virem o produto pronto, acredito que concordarão que este seja o nome mais adequado", explicou Myerson.

A apresentação foi focada nos clientes corporativos, aos quais a Microsoft tenta ganhar após as queixas com o Windows 8.

A última atualização do Windows, em 2012, representou uma grande mudança frente à versão anterior, o Windows 7, e gerou insatisfação entre muitos clientes devido à ausência do familiar botão "iniciar".

A empresa de pesquisa de mercado Forrester Research disse hoje antes da apresentação do novo sistema que solucionar os problemas apontados pelos clientes corporativos foi uma prioridade para a Microsoft.

"Neste momento, apenas uma a cada cinco organizações tem o Windows 8 para seus funcionários", lembrou, nesta terça-feira, o analista da Forrester, David Johnson.

Há meses a Microsoft fala sobre a sua estratégia para o Windows e já havia adiantado durante conferência para desenvolvedores, em abril, que com a nova plataforma será mais fácil criar aplicativos que funcionem em todos os aparelhos.

Snap 2014-10-01 at 09.03.23